The use of diamonds

The use of diamonds.

In the past, diamonds were only used as ornaments. They were ground with diamond powder, by giving them different forms to enhance the natural shine and play of the diamond's color. Already in the 17th century. the French traveler Tavernier recalls, that in India, Hindu masters, using sticks dipped in diamond powder, were able to engrave various inscriptions on polished stones. The value of cut diamonds largely depends on their shape. Grinding some greats, the famous diamonds lasted for many months, sometimes up to two years.

Depending on the destination and price, there are three basic types of natural diamonds: 1) jewelery stones (the most expensive), 2) industrial stones (the so-called. single crystals), 3 abrasive powders. Synthetic diamonds correspond to this third type of diamond.

Currently, the majority of diamonds are used in industry as a cutting raw material and as an abrasive. For these purposes, opaque varieties of bort and carbonado are used. Already in the 16th century. a diamond enclosed in an appropriate frame was used to cut the glass. He found a similar use for drilling small holes in glass or precious stones. For cutting rock blocks, e.g.. granites or marbles, metal saws are used, in which on the edge of the disc, instead of teeth, there are small ones, monocrystalline, natural or artificial diamonds. Introduced in a rapid rotation, the disc quickly cuts even the hardest rocks, giving stone slabs of sometimes considerable sizes.

Diamond is also used for other purposes, e.g.. for drawing thin wires of various metals or as an excellent abrasive. Drawings (filiery) used for drawing thin metal wires must have a very high frictional wear resistance. A lot of heat is released when the wire is pulled out, and the temperature of the die may rise up to 300 ° C, therefore the dies need to be wetted and cooled. Compared to alloy steel and carbide dies, Diamond dies have a much higher friction wear resistance. When drawing some materials, the durability of diamond dies is up to 250 times higher than carbide dies. Recently, diamond dies have been used not only for drawing thin wires, but also with diameters above 2 mm.

Most of the diamonds used in the art are used in the form of powders as an abrasive. They are used for cutting when loose or tied up, grinding and polishing of crystals, diamonds and other precious stones, metals, ceramic materials, cemented carbides etc.. Apart from natural diamonds, artificial diamonds are currently used on a very large scale, especially since they have better abrasive properties than natural diamond powders.

Diamond core bit for deep drilling

Other uses of diamonds include the manufacture of tools for measuring hardness, instruments for controlling the dimensions of mass-produced parts using cutting machine tools, manufacture of diamond knives, used in and final processing of products made of certain metals and their alloys, and also from non-metallic materials (rubber, plastics, etc.) and the manufacture of tools for processing glass.

Finally, industrial diamonds play an important role in drilling. Modern drilling tools include the rotary core drill. It is a steel pipe, at the end of which there is a circular ring called a crown. On its lower part, diamonds of a size are embedded in rows 3/4 —3 carats. The drill bit quickly rotates even the hardest rocks. The great advantage of this type of drills is this, that a cylinder-shaped rock remains intact inside the tube; this is called. core. The cores extracted to the surface sometimes from considerable depths allow for a thorough examination of the drilled rocks and the geological structure of the deeper ones, inaccessible to direct observations of the zones of the Earth's crust. The use of diamond cores made it possible to conduct deep drilling, with a depth of up to 10 000 m, thanks to which many new deposits of useful minerals were discovered and exploitation increased.

W 1973 r. world consumption of natural and synthetic diamond powders was 56 700 thousand. kr, and industrial diamonds, the so-called. single crystals, 17 603 thousand. kr. Powders are mainly used as abrasives, most of the single crystals are used in drilling, e.g.. w USA w 1973 r. in drilling was used 54% general domestic consumption of single crystals.