Crystallographic systems

Crystallographic systems.

W 1830 the year of the German mineralogist Johann F. Ch. Hessel, creator of the classification of crystals based on mathematical principles, proved by mathematical methods, that they can only exist in the building of crystals 32 cases of symmetry, or 32 crystallographic classes, …

Decorative stones

Decorative stones. Crystals.

Another group are decorative stones used in the manufacture of haberdashery and in construction, but often also in jewelery. They are minerals of lower hardness and durability, with colors other than precious stones, na

IZOMORFIZM – MIXED CRYSTALS

IZOMORFIZM – MIXED CRYSTALS

The chemical composition of individual minerals can be determined by a chemical formula. However, there are also such minerals, whose chemical composition varies within certain limits. An example would be the mineral olivine, którego skład chemiczny można

Formation of crystals

Formation of crystals.

Crystallization, that is, the formation of crystals may occur in nature in various ways: 1) from the gaseous state, 2) from alloys, 3) from solutions.

Crystallization from the gaseous state can occur either as a result of sublimation, albo reakcji

Education and shape of crystals

Education and shape of crystals

Education means the set of all planes occurring on one crystal, and their habit means their development, which is revealed in size.

The crystals of some substances have many faces and come in various combinations. An example of a mineral, …

Crystal symmetry

Crystal symmetry

By observing the crystals, you can come to a conclusion, that they are not only convex polyhedrons, limited by flat walls, but that they also exhibit symmetry phenomena. There are three types of symmetry about its three elements: straight, płaszczyzny …

The structure of crystals

The structure of crystals

Already in the 18th century. a hypothesis was put forward, that the correct external form of the crystals is the result of their internal structure. Initially it was supposed, that elements of the crystal structure, arranged in a regular spatial network, there are molecules with geometric shapes: tower, …

Crystals and their structure

Crystals and their structure.

Already in antiquity it was noticed, that a common mineral called quartz can exist in the form of polyhedrons bounded by flat faces. These polyhedra constantly have the shape of a hexagonal column ended with the walls of the pyramids. Chociaż poszczególne formy geometryczne