Kyropoluosa method

The method of extracting crystals from a liquid, developed by Czochralski and modified by many other physicists, belongs to the group of crystallization methods by cooling a melt with the same composition as the grown crystal..

A method similar to that of Czochralski is the Kyropoluos method developed …

Crystallographic systems

Crystallographic systems.

W 1830 the year of the German mineralogist Johann F. Ch. Hessel, creator of the classification of crystals based on mathematical principles, proved by mathematical methods, that they can only exist in the building of crystals 32 cases of symmetry, or 32 crystallographic classes, which can be grouped into 7 …

Formation of crystals

Formation of crystals.

Crystallization, that is, the formation of crystals may occur in nature in various ways: 1) from the gaseous state, 2) from alloys, 3) from solutions.

Crystallization from the gaseous state can occur either as a result of sublimation, or reactions between gases or vapors …