Large and beautiful diamonds have long attracted special attention due to their high value and rarity. They were the subject of separate studies, including. such outstanding mineralogists, like L.. J. Spencer i A. Fersman. Some of them have an interesting history, because they went through various vicissitudes.
The most beautiful and famous stones come from India, which until the mid-18th century. they were the only country supplying diamonds. They belonged to Indian princes and were almost as a rule kept in their treasuries, passing from generation to generation or owned by rich temples. Only later - usually as a military prey - did they travel to other countries, often getting to Europe.
The most famous of the Indian diamonds is Koh-i-Noor (Koh-i-only), i.e.. Mount of Light. The place where this stone was found and its earliest history are not exactly known. It is only known, that it was in the possession of various Rajahs and Indian princes. He was brought to Delhi as a prey and in turn became the property of the Shah Nadir, which in 1739 r. took over this city. After further numerous changes of owners, which was often accompanied by tragic circumstances, he got in 1813 r. to the ruler's treasury in Lahore. After suppressing the Sipaya uprising in 1850 r. was confiscated, along with other crown jewels, by the English troops of the East India Company and donated to Queen Victoria. Since then, it has been in the English Crown Treasury. The original shape of an irregular rosette with rich facets, called Hindu, was modernized in 1852 r. At a loss of over 40% original weight (181,1 kr) the stone was polished to an oval shape in the Netherlands, flat mass brilliant 108,9 kr.
Orłów is considered the most beautiful Indian diamond, once adorning the coronation sword of the Russian tsars. It was probably found in Golconda, in the famous Kolar Mines. Its raw mass was approx 400 kr. This stone also has a Hindu cut; the mass of the ground stone is 199,6 kr. It is the purest stone of water, a pale blue-green color. According to Indian legends, it used to be the eye of the famous statue of Brahma in the temple in Szeringham, where from at the beginning of the 18th century. was stolen by a French soldier. According to Fersman's research, Orłów is very similar to a stone, which in 1665 r. The French traveler Tavernier saw in Aurengzeb's palace in Jehan-Nabad. Both Koh-i-Noor, and Orłów, which was previously named Deyai-i-Noor, i.e.. Sea of Light, were in the possession of the Shah Nadir. After his murder, the diamond was stolen and by many hands it was finally placed on the jewelry market in Amsterdam., where in 1772 r. acquired it for 400 thousand. Russian prince of Eagles and offered rubles to Catherine II.
The name of the Persian Shah Nadir is also linked to the interesting history of another diamond,. called the Shah, which was found several centuries ago in the valleys of the Golconda rivers. Very clean, slightly yellowish in color, the stone was of extraordinary size: its length was 3 cm, and width - 1 cm. It was the property of the princes of Achmednaharu. On one side of the Shah there was an inscription carved by local masters: "Burchan-Nazim-Shah Drugi 1000 r. According to our count of time, it was a year 1591. Soon after, the ruler of northern India, Great Mogul, having conquered Achmednahar, he seized the treasury along with a wonderful diamond, which henceforth adorned the treasury of the Great Mughals. At the behest of a gemstone lover, Shah of Dżechan (Rulers of the World), who dealt with grinding himself, on another side of the diamond there is an inscription "Son of Dżechangirshah-Jechan-Shah 1051". Finally, after the conquest of India by the Persian Shah Nadir, this beautiful stone, along with other gems, found its way into the crown treasury of Persia. A hundred years later, a third inscription was carved on it: Lord-Qajar Fath-Ali-Shah-Sultan 1242 r.”. After murdering in 1829 r. Russia's diplomatic representative in Tehran, Persia - as if to atone for its guilt - offered Russia this wonderful stone.
The Regent, located in the French crown treasury, is considered to be the most perfect diamond in terms of cut, also known as Pitt or Millionaire. This stone, size 410 kr was found around 1700 r. in Partial in one of the East India Company diamond mines. The lucky finder was a slave, who hid him in a wound made in his leg. For the promised help in the escape, he offered a found stone to a sailor, who, however, benefited little from the tricked stone; he sold it for a small amount, and having quickly squandered the money he had received, he hung himself out of despair. Eventually, the stone fell into the hands of the governor of Madras, Pitta, who took him to Europe. In London, the stone was cut into a perfect weight brilliant 140,5 kr. Pitt sold it in 1717 r. the then regent of France, the Duke of Orleans, for a fabulous price over 3 francs min. During the Great Revolution, the Regent was stolen along with other crown jewels, a w 1793 r. found in the roof binding beam. Eventually, he got back to the French Crown Treasury at the Louvre, where so far it is its most valuable ornament. During Napoleon's coronation as emperor of the French (1804) it was used to decorate his sword.
From India comes the Pigott diamond brought in 1775 r. to England by Lord Pigott. It was sold for 30 thousand. pounds sterling to the viceroy of Egypt - Ali Pasha. It is beautiful, octagonal diamond with mass 41 kr.
The Indian Sancy diamond passed over 55-carat of the purest water. It got in the 15th century. to Europe to the hands of Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, who never parted with him, believing, that it protects him from disease and wounds on the battlefield. When Karol the Bold died in the Battle of Nancy, his body was robbed by a soldier, which stone found sold for a negligible amount. The magnificent stone changed hands quickly, belonged, among others. to the King of Portugal, later to Baron Sancy (hence the name of the diamond), finally to King James of England. This king, fleeing to France, took the stone, and having found himself in financial trouble, he sold it to Cardinal Mazarin. In turn, the stone came into the possession of Louis XVI. W 1791 r. it has been estimated at over a million francs. The following year, during the revolutionary struggles, was lost along with other royal jewels, later it found its way into the Spanish treasury, and finally it was sold to the Russian prince Demidov. Now he belongs to the Maharaja of Patiala, so he returned to his homeland.