Kyropoluosa method

The method of extracting crystals from a liquid, developed by Czochralski and modified by many other physicists, belongs to the group of crystallization methods by cooling a melt with the same composition as the grown crystal..

A method similar to the method …


Grenades are a large group of similar stones, which some classify as ornamental, others to the noble ones. Chemically, they belong to the silicates in the general formula M.3R2 (SiO4)3. Ciekawych rzeczywistej budowy chemicznej granatów zachęcam do przestudiowania

Grinding gemstones

Let's go back to beauty. Some of the artificially colored stones imitate other stones. But there are also such, like diamond or agate, which remain themselves after coloring. They are only more beautiful. You can also make stones more beautiful by other methods – by polishing them, zwiększenie gładkości

Imitations of precious stones

In recent years, physics has once again intervened in the production of imitation jewelry. Artificial, glass, colorless and transparent stones are provided with a layer… interference. We remember, that the interference is the effect of refracting and overlapping light waves in thin layers, e.g.. oleju

Mountain crystal

In later times, imitations of precious stones were made of melted rock crystal, today they are made of special glass. It is a mixture of lead oxides, silicon, potassium carbonate and borax, which is drowning, casts, a następnie szlifuje aż do uzyskania formy klejnotu.

Artificial stones

Artificial stones.

We know for sure, that they were produced in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, and this already in the third millennium BC. Initially as ornaments with a magical meaning, and later as beads for necklaces, earrings and bracelets. About 1400 year BCE. …

Coloring of gemstones

In the group of almost real stones, one can be called "completely real."”. I'm talking about aquamarine, a stone the color of sea water. But the color may be different: yellowish green, green and highly valued – sea, greenish blue. Nieszczególnie piękne zabarwienie żółtozielone miał jeden z największych

Topaz Rubin

A stone that pretends to be a diamond topaz – aluminum fluorosilicate. The most famous and valued topazes have a characteristic "topaz"” yellow in various shades. However, there are also blue topazes, Violet, pink, red and colorless with the poetic name "a drop of water”. The conclusion is simple. …


However, the noblest variety of chalcedony is truly Polish – very beautiful stone, apple green, light color – chrysopraz.

Large clusters of this stone occur in the vicinity and in the nickel mine "Marta” in Szklary and in the vicinity of Jordanów, gdzie stwierdzono