Kyropoluosa method

The method of extracting crystals from a liquid, developed by Czochralski and modified by many other physicists, belongs to the group of crystallization methods by cooling a melt with the same composition as the grown crystal..

A method similar to the method …

Grenades

Grenades are a large group of similar stones, which some classify as ornamental, others to the noble ones. Chemically, they belong to the silicates in the general formula M.3R2 (SiO4)3. Interesting real construction

Grinding gemstones

Let's go back to beauty. Some of the artificially colored stones imitate other stones. But there are also such, like diamond or agate, which remain themselves after coloring. They are only more beautiful. You can also make stones more beautiful by other methods – …

Imitations of precious stones

In recent years, physics has once again intervened in the production of imitation jewelry. Artificial, glass, colorless and transparent stones are provided with a layer… interference. We remember, that the interference is the result of light waves refracting and overlapping each other …

Mountain crystal

In later times, imitations of precious stones were made of melted rock crystal, today they are made of special glass. It is a mixture of lead oxides, silicon, potassium carbonate and borax, which is drowning, casts, and then grinds …

Artificial stones

Artificial stones.

We know for sure, that they were produced in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, and this already in the third millennium BC. Initially as ornaments with a magical meaning, and later as beads for necklaces, earrings and …

Coloring of gemstones

In the group of almost real stones, one can be called "completely real."”. I'm talking about aquamarine, a stone the color of sea water. But the color may be different: yellowish green, green and highly valued – sea, greenish blue. Not a particularly beautiful color …

Topaz Rubin

A stone that pretends to be a diamond topaz – aluminum fluorosilicate. The most famous and valued topazes have a characteristic "topaz"” yellow in various shades. However, there are also blue topazes, Violet, pink, red and colorless with a poetic name …

Ruby emerald zircon

We remember, that all red-colored transparent stones were once called rubies. It was not known, that apart from rubies, red can also be much cheaper grenades – pirop or almandine, as red as a spinel ruby, red variety of tourmaline …

Chrysopraz

However, the noblest variety of chalcedony is truly Polish – very beautiful stone, apple green, light color – chrysopraz.

Large clusters of this stone occur in the vicinity and in the nickel mine "Marta” w Szklarach oraz