Research on the refraction of light

Research on the refraction of light.

Systematic research on the dispersion of light began in 1665 another physicist, and at the same time a mathematician and astronomer, Englishman, Isaac Newton. Same, who discovered the law of universal gravitation, he laid the foundations for dynamics and was the first to write about the possibility of creating artificial satellites. Newton repeated Martius's experiments and obtained identical results. But he did another experiment. Using a biconvex lens and an additional prism, he synthesized the colored components of the spectrum, he combined them back into one beam of light and obtained white light, so the same, which he directed at the first prism. It was this experience, combined with Martius' observations, that allowed Newton to finally prove it, that Aristotle's hypothesis is wrong. He proved, that white light is a mixture of primary colors, and the only instruments necessary for this were: prism and human, thinking brain. Brain, who watched, he was asking questions, he drew conclusions and gave answers.

Today, in over 300 years after the first experience with light refraction, we know much more. We know, that white light is a mixture of different wavelengths, each of which corresponds to a different color. Violet light has the shortest wavelength among the colors of the visible spectrum, the greatest – red light.

We know too, that visible light is a negligible part of the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, the longest of which are hundreds of length, and even thousands of meters. Much shorter wavelengths of visible light are only from 400 nanometers (1 nm is the thousandth of a millimeter) for purple light, do 700 nm for red light. Even shorter are X-ray waves with a length of less than a millionth of a millimeter. How narrow is the range of waves perceived by our eyes, can be seen most clearly in the figure 1 on the color insert.

Drawing. The light spectrum is only a small fraction of electromagnetic waves contained between very long radio waves and very short waves of gamma radiation.

This knowledge explains the essence of color, her nature. It even allows you to accurately "measure" the color, by measuring wavelength or frequency. However, it does not answer the basic question for us - why is ruby ​​red, and blue sapphire. Why do different rubies have a different shade of red?. From completely bright, bright, purple red, by considered to be the most beautiful rubies with the color of 'pigeon blood”-red with a slight bluish tinge, down to the dark color of "ox's blood."” and very dark, with this degree of red saturation, that these stones appear black. And yet it is the color that is one of the characteristic features of gemstones. So characteristic, that many gemstones are named after their color.

Only some examples are given in the table.

The name of the stone Primitive word The meaning of the word
1 2 3
Rubin pour. ruber, rubra, rubrus red, flushed
Sapphire arab. safir or gr. sapphire blue
Emerald sanskr. smaraka and gr. emeralds green stone
1 2 3
Akwamaryn pour. aqua and Latin. big sea ​​water (the color of sea water)
Chrysolite pour. chryzos i gr. lithos golden stone
Zirconium pers. zargun gold
Piryt gr. pyrites fiery
Hematyt gr. hematoeis bloody
Lemons franc. citrin lemon
Chrysopraz gr. chryzos i gr. prason lub (greenish) golden garlic, golden green
Carnelian (milfoil) pour. fleshly flesh-colored, meat (Colour)
Rutyl pour. rutilus red golden yellow
Malachit gr. malache malwa, mallow color
Lazuryt pers. lazhward blue
Lazulit arab. azul i gr. lithos sky, stone
Lapis lazuli pour. lapis i arab. blue stone, sky
Topaz sanskr. topaz, gr. topazos and Latin. topazus fire

Not only names. Once, when neither the chemical composition of the gemstones was known, or other distinguishing features, color was the only basis for the classification of stones. All red stones were called rubies, almost all blue – sapphires, all dark green in color – emeralds etc..