Kyropoluosa method

The method of extracting crystals from a liquid, developed by Czochralski and modified by many other physicists, belongs to the group of crystallization methods by cooling a melt with the same composition as the grown crystal..

Metodą podobną do metody Czochralskiego jest metoda Kyropoluosa opracowana


Grenades are a large group of similar stones, which some classify as ornamental, others to the noble ones. Chemically, they belong to the silicates in the general formula M.3R2 (SiO4)3. Ciekawych rzeczywistej budowy chemicznej granatów zachęcam do przestudiowania


Capillarity – this phenomenon has been known to physicists for hundreds of years, but only nature could make use of this phenomenon. In a way, we talked about, but also to… crystallization of water-soluble substances. Krystalizacja z roztworów z wykorzystaniem zjawiska włoskowatości zdarza się na


High-quality steel has equal strength 1 000 MPa. Meanwhile, already in 1923 years were calculated, that the crystal strength of ordinary table salt should be 5000 MPa, so five times more. According to the same calculations, pure iron should have even greater strength, …


Anyone can grow a crystal. Each, who only wants to, and without any special devices, chemicals or laboratory equipment. All you need is willingness and patience. Before that, however, I propose to inspect the crystals. The most beautiful crystals can be found in the geological museum. Są tam

Grinding gemstones

Let's go back to beauty. Some of the artificially colored stones imitate other stones. But there are also such, like diamond or agate, which remain themselves after coloring. They are only more beautiful. You can also make stones more beautiful by other methods – by polishing them, zwiększenie gładkości