Dynamic metamorphism, also called dislocation, is associated with mountainous movements. Directional pressure plays a major role, much less static. Dynamic metamorphism works in shallow zones of the lithosphere and the influence of temperature is negligible. At a shallow depth …

Metamorphic Rocks


Metamorphism is a set of processes deep within the earth's crust, leading to changes in the structure and mineral composition of rocks, occurring at conditions of temperature and pressure higher than these, that prevail in the surface layers of the Earth. Both igneous and sedimentary rocks undergo transformations, …


Evaporites. Minerals dissolved as a result of chemical weathering are transported by rivers to lakes and seas, where, under favorable conditions, they are re-precipitated. Some of the salt in seawater may come from the primordial hydrosphere and from the exhalation of submarine volcanoes. formed

Carbonate rocks

Carbonate rocks are common sedimentary rocks. Their main ingredient is the mineral calcite CaCO3 and MgCa dolomite[CO3]2. In addition to the main components, quartz grains may be present, alkali feldspars and clay minerals. The vast majority of these rocks form

Brittle rocks

Brittle rocks i.e. clastic, made of rock crumbs are divided depending on the size of the grains that build them. Coarse clastic rocks with a grain size above 2 mm, which include sharp-edged rubble and rolled gravels. The rubble glued together with a binder forms breccias, a

Sedimentary rocks


Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of weathered and mechanically transported rocks, or chemically molecules of other existing rocks. Atmospheric and climatic factors affecting rocks through temperature changes, heating due to variable insolation, the action of water, wind and organisms cause them to disintegrate. …

Pegmatite formations

Pegmatite formations.

After the main phase of crystallization is over, there is still a part of the magma strongly diluted with gases and water vapour. The igneous remnants contain many elements that are not very common in nature, such as: bor (B), lit (At the), rubid (Rb), through (Cs), beryl (Be), …

Magma solidification processes

Magma solidification processes.

From slowly cooling magma in the upper parts of the earth's crust, but at some distance from the surface, at a temperature of about 110CTC, individual minerals begin to crystallize. Magma is made up of components with different freezing points, and that's why this process occurs …

Extrusive rocks

Extrusive or volcanic rocks they are formed by the solidification of lava, i.e.. magma poured onto the surface under conditions of low pressure and temperature, which facilitates the release of volatile components. The structure of extrusive rocks is fine-grained, in some cases, amorphous volcanic glass is formed. Enough …