Siberian diamonds. The first news about the discovery of diamonds in the Urals comes from before 100 patches. At the end of the 19th century. they were found in the Yenisei basin. In general, these were discoveries of little practical importance. The preliminary diamond exploration in Siberia, initiated before the Second World War, was interrupted as a result of hostilities. They were undertaken immediately after the war, driving in extremely difficult climatic conditions, in large areas without roads or settlements. The transport of geological teams and equipment initially took place almost exclusively by water, and later by airplanes. Thanks to well-planned work and the generosity of geologists, the presence of diamonds in Siberia was found in 1949 r. The first diamond deposits were discovered a few years later (1954—1955).
The discovery of the first kimberlite chimneys is a merit] of the Soviet mineralogist L.. Popugajewoj. W 1953 r. she discovered the presence of grenades in the river gravel in the Dałdyn-Alakit district, which turned out to be pirops, very similar to the pirops found in the South African kimberlites. Compacting research areas to sites, on which these grenades were found in August 1954 r. the first kimberlite chimney was discovered northwest of Yakutsk, which was given the name Zarnica. The chimney was 573 x 532 m. Due to the different climate than in South Africa, there are no zones of non-weathered blue earth here (blue ground) and weathered yellow earth (yellow ground). Nad świeżą skałą kimberlitową barwy zielonawej lub niebieskoszarej występuje zwietrzelina okruchowa o miąższości kilku metrów, was formed as a result of weathering.
The "piropic" method of Popugayev's search produced results in a short time. W 1955 r. A second kimberlite chimney and a diamond-rich Mir chimney, located south of the Wiłuj river, were discovered in this area (west of Irkutsk).
Not long after that, at the end 1958 r. as a result of intensive field research, it was known in Yakutia 120, and later 200 kimberlite chimneys, some of which contained diamonds in quantities, allowing their exploitation.
After examining the percentage of diamonds in individual chimneys, their exploitation began. Work in these areas was very difficult, mainly due to the climatic conditions and very large distances from larger groups of people. Drilling and mining equipment, and food had to be brought by planes. However, new housing estates were built very quickly, related to the developing mining center.
The most important diamond bearing districts lying in the vast area of Siberia from the middle course of the Lena and Viliya to the Laptev Sea are: 1) Little Batuobia with the newly created town of Mirnyj (north of Leńsk on the Lena), 2) Dałdyn — Alakit covering the area between the Dałdyn and Alakit rivers (tributary of the Oleniok River), 3) Upper Muna (from the tributary of Lena, Muny), 4) Oleniok on the middle course of the river of the same name, 5) Aldan on the upper reaches of Aldan.
Siberian kimberlite chimneys most often have an oval cross-section, diameters from 20 i 25 m up to 500, a nawet 700 m.
Diamonds are also found in Yakutia in numerous secondary deposits, in the river sands of the Quaternary and Pre Quaternary ages, but the fields are profitable (mostly quaternary) are relatively rare.
Siberian diamonds vary in size from very fine grains (0,1—0,2 mg) up to multi-carat stones. Diamonds also come in a variety of shapes, however, ka is the most important
shimmers octahedrons. The first big stone, which was found in the Mir chimney in 1956 r. had a mass, 32,5 kr. Larger stones were found in the following years - in 1964 r. a stone weighing over 69 kr, w 1966 r. 106-Carat Maria Stone, a w 1973 r. the largest diamond called the Star of Yakutia - 234 karaty. Although most Yakut diamonds have yellowish shades, their quality is highly valued.
Modern technical devices for extracting and separating the excavated diamonds from waste rock have been installed in the newly created mining estates.. The center of Yakutia's diamond industry is the city of Mirnyj, which takes its name from the neighboring one “Mir diamond bearing chimney. Here, diamonds are sorted into industrial and jewelery. W 1964 r. a diamond grinding plant was built in Smolensk. Yakutia's resources are very rich. Annual production of diamonds in the USSR in 1976 r. has achieved 12 min carats.
Other diamond bearing areas. In Guyana, diamonds are found in the Mazaruni and Potaro river basins. Minor deposits of diamonds occurring, in North America, i.e.. in United States, in British Columbia and Canada, they don't matter much.
Diamonds were discovered in Australia over a hundred years ago, w 1851 r. in its south-eastern part, in New South Wales. The largest extraction (more than 180 thousand. kr) achieved in 1951 r.
Outside the Soviet Union, there are some opportunities for diamonds in Asia to exist in a large area of China, where large-scale geological surveys are carried out.
There are no diamond deposits of practical importance in Europe. Sometimes reported cases of finding diamonds are mineralogical rarities.